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Divine Mercy: A Guide From Genesis To Benedict XVI takes you on a tour of Divine Mercy throughout salvation history, spanning the Old and New Testaments, in the writings of the Church's great theologians, and in the lives and writings of the saints down through the ages. Revised edition.

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By Dr. Robert Stackpole, STD (Oct 21, 2009)
This four-part series was prompted not so much by a question as by a challenge. A Protestant student in one of my theology classes recently asked me to defend the Catholic doctrine of purgatory, since his Biblical Studies professor once told him that there was "no way" that this doctrine could be found in the Scripture.

First of all, we who are Divine Mercy devotees probably have been moved by the powerful vision of purgatory that St. Faustina recorded in her Diary (see entry 20), and her subsequent concern for the souls there who are in need of our prayers.

But the Diary aside, is there a Biblical basis for the belief in the doctrine of purgatory? The answer: emphatically "Yes!" Scripture, tradition, the Magisterium, and rational common sense all come together in support of this doctrine, and since we are in the "run-up" to the Feast of All Souls on Nov. 2, there is no better time of year to reflect on this subject. On the other hand, we need to bear in mind that purgatory is one of the "mysteries" of divine revelation. That does not mean we are completely "in the dark" about it; it simply means that there is more to this mystery than we can possibly fathom in this life.

There is no doubt that both Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christians (e.g., Greek and Russian Orthodox) have much in common regarding the whole matter of purgatory and prayers for the departed. For example, both see a foundation for such prayers in Holy Scripture. In 2 Maccabees 12:42-46, for example, the Jewish hero Judas Maccabeus ordered sacrifices to be offered in the Temple for the souls of his soldiers killed in battle, that their sins might be forgiven: "It is therefore a holy and wholesome thought to pray for the dead, that they may be loosed from their sins" (verse 46). Obviously, if they could be "loosed" from their sins after their death by the prayers of the living, they must be in some kind of post-mortem state in which cleansing from sin is possible. This seems to have been a common Jewish belief in the century before Christ. [Note: The common Protestant contention that the Catholic Church only added the two books of Maccabees to the Scriptures in 1546, at the Council of Trent, to counter Martin Luther's claim that prayers for the departed were not scriptural, is demonstrably false. The Maccabean corpus was accepted at Rome as canonical Scripture as early as 496 A.D., in the Decree of Pope Gelasius. The books were also listed as canonical Scripture by the ecumenical Council of Florence (1439-1443) long before the Reformation. The decree on the scriptural canon at the Council of Trent only clarified the uncertainties about the Old Testament books because a few other books in the so-called Apocrypha were still in dispute.]

Scripture contains other allusions to prayer for the departed as well. Saint Paul mentions in 1 Corinthians 15:29 an ancient practice in which Christians were baptized on behalf of the dead. This may have been an early and somewhat extravagant form of liturgical prayer for the departed, or St. Paul may be using the word "baptism" in this passage metaphorically (as in Mk 10:38), to refer to the baptism of earthly trials, mortifications, and afflictions accepted and offered up on behalf of the departed by the early Christians. Saint Paul, in Colossians 1:24, mentions his own practice of offering up his sufferings for the good of the Church. In any case, he does not criticize prayer for the departed in 1 Corinthians 15, and implicitly his argument in that chapter approves of it. In 2 Timothy 1:16-18, St. Paul wrote of his friend Onesiphorous: "May the Lord grant unto him to find the mercy of the Lord on that day" (that is, the Day of Judgment). The context of St. Paul's remarks suggests that Onesiphorous was already dead (see 2 Tm 1:18 and 4:19).

Further evidence that prayer for the departed was apostolic teaching and practice comes from the early church Fathers. Saint Polycarp, for example, who was martyred in 156 A.D., had learned the faith in his boyhood from St. John the Apostle himself, and in the 2nd century account of his martyrdom we learn that just before his death, he prayed "for all those whom he had ever known." Given that Polycarp was 86 at the time of his martyrdom, most of those whom he had ever known must have been dead. In fact, the most ancient liturgical texts for the Eucharist that we possess, from both the eastern and the western Mediterranean, also contain prayers for the departed. In the mid-third century, St. Cyprian of Carthage tells us that prayers for the departed had been said in all the churches since the time of the apostles. In fact, there are no known opponents of prayers for the departed among orthodox Christian believers in the ancient Church.

The cumulative force of the evidence, therefore, suggest that prayer for the departed was very likely an apostolic teaching and practice, and implicit in that practice and belief is another one: that we can help the departed in some way by our prayers, the faithful departed at least. If they are in hell, of course, they are beyond any help. If they are in heaven, they do not need our help. Only if some of them are in a kind of intermediate state of cleansing and purification does the practice of praying for the departed make any sense.

Thus far, I think, Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christians are of a common mind.

The question then arises: How do the faithful departed actually benefit by our prayers for them?

Some Protestants fear that if we pray for the dead, then that implies that people have "second chances" beyond the grave to repent and come to saving faith, and if that is true — that we all get second, third, and more chances beyond this life — then why should missionaries and evangelists bother to expend their energies? Why should they so often risk their lives spreading the gospel among the living? After all, if people do not turn their hearts to Christ in this present life, they can always do so in the next. The doctrine of purgatory, so understood, would undermine the urgency and importance of Christian evangelism (an urgency and importance on full display in the lives of the apostles themselves in the New Testament!).

However, this represents a misunderstanding of the Catholic and Orthodox doctrine of purgatory. We do not intend to pray for all the departed, including those who died in unrepented mortal sin, but only for the faithful departed. That is, for those who died in faith, in a state of grace, yet who were not fully sanctified in faith, hope, and love at the time of their passing. If some Catholic prayers for the departed seem indiscriminate, that is because the Church on earth generally does not presume to judge which persons did not die in a state of grace, and were thereby eternally lost (for whom such prayers would be useless). The state of the heart at the time of death is usually known only to God. All mainstream Christian traditions accept that the underlying decision for or against Christ must be made in this present life. By praying for the departed, Catholics simply ask our Lord to complete the work that he began in those who clung to Him in faith, but whose hearts were not fully sanctified at the hour of their death. For those who died with at least a tiny spark in their hearts of faith in the God of mercy (faith the size of a mustard seed, so to speak), our prayer is that the Lord in His tender mercy will fan that spark into flame in the next life, as swiftly as possible burning away the imperfections of their souls and making them ever more fully united to Christ, "for He is like a refiner's fire, and He shall purify the sons of Levi, that they may offer unto the Lord, an offering in righteousness" (Mal 3:2). I am reminded here of some words written by C.S. Lewis in his book A Grief Observed at the death of his beloved wife Joy (words I have quoted in this column before):

She was a splendid thing, a soul straight, bright, and tempered like a sword. But not a perfected saint. A sinful woman married to a sinful man; two of God's patients not yet cured. I know there are not only tears to be dried but stains to be scoured. The sword will be made even brighter ... but Oh God, tenderly, tenderly.



Again, as I understand it, in all this the Catholics and the Eastern Orthodox are in full accord. We continue to pray for the departed, entrusting their souls into the hands of our heavenly Father, that they might find continual growth in His love and service, until they attain what the Book of Hebrews calls "that holiness without which no one shall see the Lord" (Heb 12:14). Our Lord Jesus Himself stated that unless our righteousness exceeds that of the scribes and Pharisees, we shall not enter the kingdom of heaven (Mt 3:20). Since even with the help of divine grace, few of us have attained that righteousness in its fullness by the time of our death, our Lord provides for us a time of healing and purgation, to complete the work of sanctification in us that He started. Father Aidan Nichols, OP, put it this way in his book Rome and the Eastern Churches:

At its most fundamental, the doctrine of purgatory affirms that for those who die with their wills set towards charity, further transformation is possible beyond death as a preparation for heaven. And stated thus, the doctrine is an ecumenical doctrine, which belongs to the Greek and Latin churches, no matter what terminology is used.



However, there is one aspect of the doctrine of purgatory on which, historically, Catholics and Eastern Orthodox have never really been in accord. What is it? (To be continued next week.)

Learn about the efforts of the Marian Fathers of the Immaculate Conception to assist the Holy Souls in Purgatory.

Robert Stackpole, STD, is director of the John Paul II Institute of Divine Mercy. His latest book is Divine Mercy: A Guide from Genesis to Benedict XVI (Marian Press). Got a question? E-mail him at questions@thedivinemercy.org.

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Jose — Oct 22, 2009 - 17:56 EDT

I would like to know more about how do we know about Purgatory. This is a question I made to myself in the past few days while I was meditating about the Divine Mercy. I thought then that this we might know from revelation to some saints, like Sr Faustina Kowalska. I would like to know more about these revelations to other saints. Thanks

Br. Jim McCormack, MIC — Oct 23, 2009 - 14:23 EDT

The founder of the Marians of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Bl. Stanislaus Papczynski, had at least two visions of purgatory which inspired him to make praying for the poor souls in purgatory an official point of our Marian charism. For more information on Bl. Stanislaus, please visit: http://www.padrimariani.org/en/heritage/founder.php

sebastian — Oct 25, 2009 - 19:46 EDT

Thanks. To focus our attention on our "baptism";the trials and tribulations to be witnesses of JESUS CHRIST; Son of God, The LOVE of Almighty Eternal Father. To be meek and humble and to be truly repentent to embrace the grace offered to the good malefactor :
"Verily I say unto thee, To day shalt thou be with me in paradise"(Luke 23:43).

judian — Jul 29, 2011 - 22:42 EDT

There is no purgatory. All the verses mentioned do not have anything to do with a purgatory at all. Jesus taught us himself that his blood is the perfect cleansing of our soul. To accept purgatory is to say that Christ died for nothing.

Mike — Oct 20, 2011 - 8:52 EDT

Judian-
If you read the article with an open mind, there is nothing written here that supports your idea that "Christ died for nothing".
Remember this story-
The Pharisee, standing by himself, prayed thus: 'God, I thank you that I am not like other men, extortioners, unjust, adulterers, or even like this tax collector...
Which one of these men went away forgiven?
May God bless you and soften your heart.

JWBC II — Apr 12, 2012 - 17:31 EDT

Lk 23:43 "today you will be with me in paradise".[NIV] Interesting choice of word, "paradise" or at least that's the way it was translated. Is Purgatory as part of Heaven? Or is it an entirely different state of being? Do the souls in Purgatory feel more like the souls in hell, i.e. separated from God? Or are they aware they are in the presence of God and have the capability to continue praying, repenting, and working toward their ultimate salvation? It's not Limbo as I understand that, but there must be a motivating factor; some sense of hope for souls in Purgatory.I need some help here.

Paul — Nov 7, 2013 - 13:35 EST

If Purgatory is a place where our suffering produces sanctification - then it is anathema to Scripture.
Presumably, Purgatory is a place where those who have no mortal ("that lead to death") sins but are guilty of venial ("forgivable") sins that have not been confessed (to a priest), go on their way to heaven. The purpose is either, depending on which Catholic authority you ask, (a) to pay for those unconfessed sins or (b) undo the effects of those sins [clean our "spiritual garments"] and make us fit for heaven.

Neither is supported scripturally, and in fact, both are refuted by Scripture.
Purgatory cannot take away any sin, not even venial sin - only the blood of Christ can do that
- 1 John 1:7 - The blood of Jesus Christ His Son cleanses us from all sin.

And Purgatory cannot make us "fit for heaven", because one who has placed his faith in the sacrificed and resurrected Christ as the propitiation (total satisfaction of a debt) and full expiation (atonement) for our sins, is already declared fit by God.
- 2 Cor 5:21 - For He (God) made Him (Christ) who knew no sin, to be sin for us, that we might become the righteousness of God in Him.
- Heb 10-14 - But this Man (Christ), after He had offered one sacrifice for sins forever, sat down at the right hand of God, from that time waiting til His enemies are made His footstool. For by one offering He has perfected forever those who are being sanctified.

The Bible does not teach that we who have put our faith in Jesus Christ bear the effects of our sin, but that Jesus bore them Himself on the cross.

Either Jesus bore our sins, and their effect, or He didn't. If He did, then Purgatory is unnecessary and a false doctrine. If He didn't, then we can only hang our head in shame, having no hope, since
- Acts 4:12 - Nor is there salvation in any other, for there is no other name under heaven given among men by which we must be saved.

Having once heard the Gospel: that despite our deserving - once, still, and forever - the wrath of God for our sins, Jesus paid fully our debt by His sacrifice of death in our place on the cross, and verified as the finished work that it was by God raising Him from the dead. It is this Gospel we must continue to believe completely. Taking anything from it (the finished work being somehow incomplete), or adding anything to it (like works or Purgatory) is vanity
- 1 Cor 15:2 - By this gospel you are saved, if you hold fast the word which I preached to you, unless (otherwise) you believed in vain.

So, rest assured. Jesus took all our suffering - by HIS stripes we are healed. Jesus took all our judgement for sin - we are declared JUSTIFIED (no longer under judgement for our sin). That is God's gift to us, for the work accomplished by His Son. That is grace.
- Romans 5 -

Now, get out there and live, and love others, and share with them the Good News of salvation by the death and resurrection of Christ. That's what he expects of those He's saved.
- Ephesians 2:8-10 - For by grace you have been saved through faith; and that not of yourselves, it is the gift of God; not as a result of works so that no man may boast. For we are HIS workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God prepared beforehand that we would walk in them.

Christ's Precious Blood IS THE PERFECT cleansing of our souls!: — Oct 30, 2014 - 13:44 EDT

"Eighth Day
"Today bring to Me the Souls who are in the prison of Purgatory,

and immerse them in the abyss of My mercy. Let the torrents of My Blood cool down their scorching flames. All these souls are greatly loved by Me. They are making retribution to My justice. It is in your power to bring them relief. Draw all the indulgences from the treasury of My Church and offer them on their behalf. Oh, if you only knew the torments they suffer, you would continually offer for them the alms of the spirit and pay off their debt to My justice."

Most Merciful Jesus, You Yourself have said that You desire mercy; so I bring into the abode of Your Most Compassionate Heart the souls in Purgatory, souls who are very dear to You, and yet, who must make retribution to Your justice. May the streams of Blood and Water which gushed forth from Your Heart put out the flames of Purgatory, that there, too, the power of Your mercy may be celebrated.

Eternal Father, turn Your merciful gaze upon the souls suffering in Purgatory, who are enfolded in the Most Compassionate Heart of Jesus. I beg You, by the sorrowful Passion of Jesus Your Son, and by all the bitterness with which His most sacred Soul was flooded: Manifest Your mercy to the souls who are under Your just scrutiny. Look upon them in no other way but only through the Wounds of Jesus, Your dearly beloved Son; for we firmly believe that there is no limit to Your goodness and compassion. Amen." (https://www.ewtn.com/devotionals/mercy/novena.htm#8)


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